CALVARY MOUNTAIN – city located 36 km to the south. east of Warsaw, in the Archdiocese of Warsaw.
Góra Kalwaria has been a famous center of religious worship for over a hundred years since the end of the 17th century. It developed as a place of worship thanks to the initiative of the bishop of Poznań, Stefan Wierzbowski, which in years 1666-1667 in the village of Góra, located at an important crossing over the Vistula River, he began efforts to build a Calvary town.
W 1670 the bishop obtained permission from king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki to locate the city under Magdeburg Law, a w 1673 The Seym approved the foundation called "Nowa Jerozolima". The location privilege is reserved, that only the Roman Catholic population can live in the city.
G.K. is a city with a baroque layout, built on a Roman cross plan, the arms of which formed two streets intersecting at right angles. It is exposed in its urban landscape 7 sacred objects, responding 7 station churches in Rome. Four of these churches were to emphasize the four directions of the world. This urban pattern alluded to the layout of Rome at the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries., in which four larger basilicas dominated. Hence, this city, in addition to the name "New Jerusalem", gained the name of "New Rome". At the street ends, the bishop founded four churches with monasteries, and at their intersection v 1668 he built the chapel of Pilate, from which the "way to Calvary" began. W 1674 the Church of the Lord's Supper was built under the care of the Marian priests 1677. There, the Servant of God, Fr.. Stanisław Papczyński.
W G.K. apart from the stations of the Way of the Lord's Passion, pilgrims also visited churches, in which the relics of saints were kept. Calvary consisted of 35 chapels. Prayer paths had 51 station. They included 4 events related to the public activity of the Lord Jesus, 15 of the Way of Capture, 17 the Way of the Cross station, 5 stations covering events from the resurrection to the ascension, 9 stations dedicated to the saints. During the operation of G.. K. as a center of religious worship took place 9 large indulgences connected with the passage of the Path of the Lord's Passion or a procession to the Calvary chapel associated with a given holiday, 16 minor indulgences and 10 other indulgences.
They have remained until the present day after Calvary, changing your status: the so-called. Pilate's chapel – currently serves as the filial church of. Exaltation of the Holy Cross "on Górka", The Cenacle is the branch church of the Lord's Supper in Marianki, the Chapel of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Chapel of St.. Anthony.
The partitions and the destruction of the city during the war during the Kościuszko Uprising and the November Uprising contributed to the fall of importance.. Then the Prussian government secularized church property in 1795. The property of the orders became the property of the government, and the city lost its importance as a center of religious worship. Later, a settlement permit was issued for the Jewish population. At the beginning of the 19th century. street regulation was carried out, which contributed to the destruction of the original Baroque urban layout and the Calvary chapels. After the November Uprising, they came to G.K. Christians of Evangelical-Augsburg denomination. The total decline of the city was due to the withdrawal of its municipal rights in 1883.